North Yorkshire Police said the thieves broke into the Northfield Meadow development on Stoney Haggs Road in Seamer at around 10.40pm on Thursday July 21.
The suspects moved heavy plant machinery to access the fuel, which officers said would have made a loud noise late at night.
Anyone who may have seen or heard anything suspicious at the building site or who has dashcam, doorbell or CCTV cameras is urged to contact North Yorkshire Police.
Officers are also carrying out house-to-house enquiries in the area.
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Anyone with information should email [email protected] or call North Yorkshire Police on 101, select option 2, and ask for PC 677 Eddon.
Information can be passed on anonymously via Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111. Quote police reference number 12220127964 when providing information.